VETERINARSKI ARHIV 69 (4), 221-227, 1999

ISSN 1331-8055 Published in Croatia




Biochemical and cytologic properties of blood and peritoneal fluid in clinically normal adult goats

Saeid Nazifi*, Seifallah Dehghani, and Hamid Reza Gheisari

Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine,
Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran




* Contact address:
Prof. Dr. Saeid Nazifi,
Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, P.O. Box 1731, Shiraz 71345, Iran,
Fax: 98 71 279 62


Nazifi, S., S. Dehghani, H. R. Gheisari: Biochemical and cytologic properties of blood and peritoneal fluid in clinically normal adult goats. Vet. arhiv 69, 221-227, 1999.

ABSTRACT

Twenty Iranian crossbred male goats were studied to determine their cellular and biochemical parameters of peritoneal fluid and blood. The number of WBCs and RBCs in peritoneal fluid was lower than that in blood. The percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils in peritoneal fluid was similar to that of blood. Concentration of protein and calcium and the activities of creatine kinase (CK), amylase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum were higher (P<0.05) than in peritoneal fluid. On the other hand, concentration of chloride in peritoneal fluid was higher (P<0.05) than in serum. Concentration of all other constituents were similar to those of serum.

Key words: goat, biochemical parameters, blood, peritoneal fluid, cytologic parameters



Introduction

The use of peritoneal fluid as an aid to diagnosis of abdominal diseases has been well documented (BACH and RICKETTS, 1974; HIRSCH and TOWNSEND, 1982; WILSON et al., 1985; KOPCHA and SCHULTZE, 1991; DUNCAN et al., 1994; MEYER and HARVEY, 1998). Peritoneal fluid is a dialysate of serum; therefore, its biochemical values reflect those of serum. Peritoneal fluid analysis is a repeatable and informative procedure to assist in the assessment of severity of abdominal lesions, and may help to decide whether or not to perform abdominal surgery (DUCHARME and LOWE, 1988).

The examination of the peritoneal fluid of the dog, cat, horse, pony and cattle has been described (CROWE and CRANE, 1976; KOLATA, 1976; COFFMAN, 1980; BROWNLOW et al., 1981; HIRSCH and TOWNSEND, 1982; WILSON et al., 1985; SANTSCHI et al., 1988; GRINDEM et al., 1990; KOPCHA and SCHULTZE, 1991). Concentration of electrolytes in the peritoneal fluid of the goat following rumenotomy has been reported (ADAMU et al., 1991). There is no published information on the cellular and biochemical properties of the normal peritoneal fluid of the goat. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine the cellular and biochemical parameters of the peritoneal fluid of clinically normal adult Iranian goats. A comparison was also made with the corresponding parameters in the blood of goat. The data reported here could be used as reference values.

Materials and methods

Twenty Iranian crossbred male goats aged 2-3 years and mass of 20-25 kg were used for this study. They were in good condition and clinically normal. All goats were treated with anthelmintic fenbendazole (Damloran Co., Borujerd, Iran) (10mg/kg) 30 days prior to the study. Blood and peritoneal fluid samples were collected 3 times within a 7-day interval. Approximately 1-1.5 ml of peritoneal fluid was collected from each animal. The most dependent part of abdomen, 5 cm caudal to the xyphoid and 5 cm left of the midline, was shaved, prepared and anaesthetized locally. A 24 gauge needle was used to aspirate peritoneal fluid aseptically. The samples were transferred into a clean, sterile, labelled universal container. With the exception of the portion employed for total leukocyte and erythrocyte counts, all samples were centrifuged prior to further analysis and stored at -20 C until analysed. Blood samples were collected by jugular venepuncture into vacutainers containing EDTA as an anticoagulant. Serum was separated by centrifuge for serum biochemical analysis, which were kept at -20 C until analysed. Blood values were estimated through standard haematological techniques (JAIN, 1986). Total red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) counts in peritoneal fluid were carried out using a standard haemacytometer. Differential leukocyte counts were made from Giemsa stained smears of the sediment following centrifugation of peritoneal fluid (COLES, 1986). Biochemical analysis, including serum and peritoneal fluid total protein, was carried out using the Biuret method, glucose by the O-Toluidine method, urea nitrogen by the Diacetyl monoxime method, chloride by the colorimetric (mercuric nitrate) method, inorganic phosphorus by the ammonium molybdate method, creatine kinase (CK) by the sigma colorimetric (Modified Hughes) method, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by modified method of Bowers and McComb, and amylase by the amyloclastic method. All enzyme activities were measured at 37 C and results have been presented in U/L (BURTIS and ASHWOOD, 1994). Concentration of sodium and potassium in serum and peritoneal fluid was measured by the flame photometric method (Flame photometer FLM2, Ontario, Canada). Samples were analysed for magnesium and calcium by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Shimadzo, AA-670, Kyoto, Japan).

Data were expressed in SI unit and analysed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All values were expressed in mean standard error (SE) using a significance level of P<0.05.

Results

The mean SE of cellular and biochemical parameters of blood and peritoneal fluid in adult goats are presented in Table 1. Peritoneal fluids appeared pale, creamy and clear. No clot formation was observed at room temperature. Four nucleated cell types, polymorphonuclear neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte and eosinophil, were observed in goat peritoneal fluid. The percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils in peritoneal fluid was similar to that of blood. The number of WBCs and RBCs in peritoneal fluid was lower than that in blood. The concentration of protein and calcium and the activities of CK, amylase and ALP in serum, were higher (P<0.05) than in peritoneal fluid (Table 1). On the other hand, concentration of chloride in peritoneal fluid was higher (P<0.05) than in serum (Table 1). Concentration of all other constituents was similar to those of serum.

Table 1. Mean ( SEM) of cellular and biochemical parameters of blood and peritoneal fluid in adult goats (N=20)

Parameter

Blood

Peritoneal fluid

RBC* (1012/L)

12.740.47

0.000.00

WBC* (109/L)

9.050.73

0.320.04

PCV (L/L)

0.300.01

-

Hb (g/L)

103.03.5

-

Neutrophil (%)

35.31.97

31.41.36

Lymphocyte (%)

61.301.92

61.700.62

Eosinophil (%)

0.900.30

0.300.20

Basophil (%)

0.700.22

0.000.00

Monocyte (%)

1.300.38

6.600.61

Band neutrophil (%)

0.500.28

0.000.00

Glucose (mmol/L)

3.150.25

2.550.10

Total protein* (g/L)

84.06.8

23.900.90

Urea nitrogen (mmol/L)

9.440.74

8.380.58

Sodium (mmol/L)

135.23.21

148.12.18

Potassium (mmol/L)

4.270.04

3.160.20

Magnesium (mmol/L)

1.230.11

0.660.06

Calcium* (mmol/L)

2.460.10

0.580.04

Inorganic phosphorus (mmol/L)

1.210.15

1.210.13

Chloride* (mmol/L)

102.382.73

140.201.53

CK* (U/L)

15.551.89

8.401.03

Amylase* (U/L)

79.6011.51

19.704.78

ALP* (U/L)

130.5219.62

27.404.60

* Statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

Discussion

This study provides some information on the biochemical and cytologic properties of the peritoneal fluid of the goat. Normal peritoneal fluid is transparent and pale yellow (COLES, 1986; MEYER and HARVEY, 1998). Normal peritoneal fluids do not clot (COLES, 1986). Erythrocytes were not observed in normal peritoneal fluid of goats. Erythrocytes are not constituents of normal peritoneal fluid. Their presence in small numbers is generally attributable to contamination during the abdominocentesis procedure (MALARK et al., 1992). The mean value of peritoneal fluid leukocyte counts in goats agreed favourably with that previously obtained in horse by COLES (1986), although the observed value was lower than the values reported for horse by BROWNLOW et al. (1981) and JUZWIAK et al. (1991), pony by SANTSCHI et al. (1988), foal by GRINDEM et al. (1990) and cattle by WILSON et al. (1985). In the peritoneal fluid of goats, lymphocytes were the predominant cell type, followed by neutrophils. The mean value of neutrophils and monocytes in the peritoneal fluid of goats was lower than the values reported by others in cattle (KOPCHA and SCHULTZE, 1991) the horse (BROWNLOW et al., 1981; COLES, 1986; JUZWIAK et al., 1991) or the pony (SANTSCHI et al., 1988). Peritoneal fluid total protein concentration in goats was higher than that reported for the horse (BROWNLOW et al., 1981; COLES, 1986) the pony (SANTSCHI et al., 1988) and the foal (GRINDEM et al., 1990). The peritoneal fluid to serum protein ratio in adult goats was 0.28. Normal peritoneal fluid protein is between 7 and 30 g/L (BROWNLOW et al., 1981; WILSON et al., 1985). As the plasma levels of a specific protein increase, the levels in peritoneal fluid also tend to increase (DUNCAN et al., 1994; MEYER and HARVEY, 1998). The mean value of glucose concentration in the peritoneal fluids of goats was lower than that reported for horse (BROWNLOW et al., 1981). Glucose in the peritoneal fluid is normally identical to or slightly less than serum glucose (Table 1). The serum to peritoneal fluid glucose ratio in this study was 1:23. Peritoneal fluid urea nitrogen concentration in goats was higher than that reported for the horse (BROWNLOW et al., 1981) and the foal (GRINDEM et al., 1990). Evaluation of urea nitrogen levels is used in the diagnosis of uroperitoneum. Thus, comparison of peritoneal fluid and serum urea nitrogen levels is essential because absolute values of each parameter in uroperitoneum may fall within the normal range (GRINDEM et al., 1990). Peritoneal fluid urea nitrogen (mean: 8.38 mmol/L) and serum urea nitrogen (mean: 9.44 mmol/L) levels in goats in this study were similar. The concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride in the peritoneal fluid of goats was similar to the findings of ADAMU et al. (1991). However, peritoneal fluid calcium was lower than the values reported for horse (BROWNLOW et al., 1981) and goat (ADAMU et al., 1991). In our study, there was no difference between concentration of sodium, potassium, magnesium and inorganic phosphorus in serum and in peritoneal fluid. However, concentration of calcium in the peritoneal fluid was lower than the value in serum (P<0.05). Our results indicate that the normal activities of CK, amylase and ALP in the peritoneal fluid of goat were lower than the values in serum. The normal activity of ALP in the peritoneal fluid of goat was similar to the values reported for horse (FROSCHER and NAGODE, 1981). Increased ALP activity in peritoneal fluid cannot be used as a reliable indicator of small intestinal injury in horses, because the ALP is predominantly granulocytic in origin. FROSCHER and NAGODE (1981) reported that the increases in ALP activity in peritoneal fluid of horses with acute abdominal disease cannot be attributed directly to destructive lesions of the small intestine. This is the first report of the activity of amylase in peritoneal fluid of ruminants. CROWE and CRANE (1976) showed that in intestinal ischemia of dog and cat the activity of peritoneal amylase is increased. CK activity in the peritoneal fluid of goats was the first report in this field. To our knowledge, no information about CK activity in the peritoneal fluid of domestic animals is available in literature.

References

ADAMU, S. S., G. O. EGWU, J. T. MALGWI (1991): Biochemical changes in the peritoneal fluid following rumenotomy in goats. Vet. Res. Comm. 15, 363-367.

BACH, L. G., S. W. RICKETTS (1974): Paracentesis as an aid to the diagnosis of abdominal disease in the horse. Equine Vet. J. 6, 116-121.

BROWNLOW, M. A., D. R. HUTCHINS, K. G. JOHNSTON (1981): Reference values for equine peritoneal fluid. Equine Vet. J. 13, 127-130.

BURTIS, C. A., E. R. ASHWOOD (1994): Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia.

COFFMAN, J. (1980): Peritoneal fluid. Equine Prac. 16, 1285-1289.

COLES, E. H. (1986): Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia.

CROWE, D. T., S. W. CRANE (1976): Diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and lavage in the evaluation of abdominal injuries in dogs and cats. Clinical and experimental investigations. J.A.V.M.A. 168, 700-706.

DUCHARME, N. G., J. E. LOWE (1988): Decision for surgery. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine practice 4, 51-61.

DUNCAN, J. R., K. W. PRASSE, E. A. MAHAFFEY (1994): Veterinary Laboratory Medicine. Clinical Pathology. 3rd ed. Iowa State University Press. Ames, U.S.A.

FROSCHER, B. G., L. A. NAGODE (1981): Origin and importance of increased alkaline phosphatase activity in peritoneal fluids of horses with colic. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42, 888-891.

GRINDEM, C. B., N. M. FAIRLEY, C. A. UHLINGER, S. A. CRANE (1990): Peritoneal fluid values from healthy foals. Equine Vet. J. 22, 359-361.

HIRSCH, V. M., H. G. G. TOWNSEND (1982): Peritoneal fluid analysis in the diagnosis of abdominal disorders in cattle: A retrospective study. Can. Vet. J. 23, 348-354.

JAIN, N. C. (1986): Schalm's Veterinary Hematology. 4th ed. Lea & Febiger. Philadelphia.

JUZWIAK, J. S., C. A. RAGLE, C. M. BROWN, J. D. KREHBIEL, R. F. SLOCOMBE (1991): The effect of repeated abdominocentesis on peritoneal fluid constituents in the horse. Vet. Res. Comm. 15, 177-180.

KOLATA, R. J. (1976): Diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and lavage: Experimental and clinical evaluation in the dog. J.A.V.M.A. 168, 697-699.

KOPCHA, M., A. E. SCHULTZE (1991): Peritoneal fluid. Part I. Pathophysiology and classification of nonneoplastic effusions. The Compendium 13, 519-524.

MALARK, J. A., L. C. PEYTON, M. J. GALVIN (1992): Effects of blood contamination on equine peritoneal fluid analysis. J.A.V.M.A. 201, 1545-1548.

MEYER, D. J., J. W. HARVEY (1998): Veterinary Laboratory Medicine. Interpretation and Diagnosis. 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders Co.

SANTSCHI, E. M., C. B. GRINDEM, L. P. TATE, W. T. CORBETT (1988): Peritoneal fluid analysis in ponies after abdominal surgery. Vet. Surg. 17, 6-9.

WILSON, A. D., V. W. HIRSCH, A. D. OSBORNE (1985): Abdominocentesis in cattle: Technique and criteria for diagnosis of peritonitis. Can. Vet. J. 26, 74-80.

Received: 13 August 1999
Accepted: 28 October 1999



Nazifi, S., S. Dehghani, H. R. Gheisari: Biokemijske i citoloske osobitosti krvi i peritonealne tekucine u klinicki zdravih odraslih koza. Vet. arhiv 69, 221-227, 1999.

SAZETAK

U 20 iranskih, krizanih jaraca istrazeni su stanicni i biokemijski sastojci peritonealne tekucine i krvi. Broj bijelih i crvenih krvnih stanica bio je manji u peritonealnoj tekucini nego u krvi. Postotak neutrofila, limfocita, monocita i eozinofila bio je u peritonealnoj tekucini slican onome u krvi. Koncentracija bjelancevina i kalcija te aktivnost kreatin kinaze, amilaze i alkalne fosfataze bila je veca u serumu (P<0,05) nego u peritonealnoj tekucini, dok je koncentracija klorida bila veca u peritonealnoj tekucini (P<0,05) nego u serumu. Koncentracija svih drugih sastojaka u peritonealnoj tekucini bila je slicna onoj u serumu.

Kljucne rijeci: koza, biokemijski pokazatelji, krv, peritonealna tekucina, stanicni elementi


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